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Fantastic question!

To understand synapses it is important to understand Action Potentials. An action potential is a generation of an electrical impulse, these are propagated by Ion channels opening and closing. This is much the same in synaptic control. For an action potential to be transmitted across a synapse it must travel across from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic neuron via the synaptic cleft. These vesicles contain neurotransmitters such as ACH (Acetylcholine) and these are broken down and used to further the A.P in the postsynaptic cleft. 

Feel free to visit my page for any more questions and I can explain more in depth. 

Hi there! What a great question. Basically, synaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters are then released into synaptic clefts and then mediate their action on postsynaptic neurons.  Well to understand the concept of how neurotransmitters work, we first need to understand the role of voltage-gated ca channels located in the presynaptic neuron and the mechanisms on how they are exocytosed into the cleft. I will be glad to explain these steps in further detail with the help of some videos and talk about some diseases underlying the concepts of neurotransmitters. 

Synaptic vesicles are small vesicles clustered at presynaptic terminals. Their role is to store and release neurotransmitters, which is triggered by exocytosis. This ensures signals to be transmitted in one direction only.

To release neurotransmitters and facilitate transmission of signals.

To ensure one way communication of impulses. 

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